eth_sendRawTransaction | Aurora

Aurora API method that allows submitting a signed transaction to the network. Once a transaction is signed, you can use the eth_sendRawTransaction method to submit the signed transaction to the Cronos network for processing.


Note that the interactive example in this page will not work, due to the fact that eth_sendRawTransaction is used to modify the state of the blockchain, it is not possible to duplicate the same request.


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  • data—the signed transaction. The serialized transaction data includes transaction metadata such as the nonce, gas price, gas limit, recipient address, and data payload, as well as the digital signature generated using the private key associated with the address that is sending the transaction. Typically, the transaction is signed with a library such as, web3.js, or ethers.js using the sender's private key.


  • result — the unique hash identifying the transaction or the zero hash if the transaction is unavailable. The zero hash is a special value representing an invalid or null hash.

eth_sendRawTransaction code examples

The following examples demonstrate using Web3 libraries to transfer CRO.

const { Web3 } = require("web3");

// Initialize Web3 instance using a provider
const web3 = new Web3(
  new Web3.providers.HttpProvider("YOUR_CHAINSTACK_RPC_NODE")

 * Sends a specified amount from a given account to another.
 * @param {string} secretKey The private key of the sender's account.
 * @param {string} to The recipient address.
 * @param {string} amount The amount to send in Ether.
async function sendAmount(secretKey, to, amount) {
  const account = web3.eth.accounts.privateKeyToAccount(secretKey);
  const senderAddress = account.address;
    `Attempting to send ${amount} ETH from ${senderAddress} to ${to}`

  const MAX_RETRIES = 3; // Maximum number of retries
  const COOLDOWN = 5000; // Time waited between retries in ms

  let retries = 0; // Initialize retry counter

  async function sendTransaction() {
    try {
      const balance = await web3.eth.getBalance(senderAddress);
        `Current balance: ${web3.utils.fromWei(balance, "ether")} ETH`

      const gasPrice = await web3.eth.getGasPrice();
        `Current gas price: ${web3.utils.fromWei(gasPrice, "gwei")} Gwei`

      const gasLimit = await web3.eth.estimateGas({
        from: senderAddress,
        to: to,
        value: web3.utils.toWei(amount, "ether"),
      console.log(`Estimated gas limit: ${gasLimit}`);

      const gasCost = BigInt(gasPrice) * BigInt(gasLimit);
        `Estimated gas cost: ${web3.utils.fromWei(
        )} ETH`

      const amountToSend = web3.utils.toWei(amount, "ether");
      const totalCost = BigInt(amountToSend) + gasCost;

      if (BigInt(balance) >= totalCost) {
        console.log(`Amount to send: ${amount} ETH`);

        const transaction = {
          to: to,
          value: amountToSend,
          gas: gasLimit,
          gasPrice: gasPrice,
          nonce: await web3.eth.getTransactionCount(senderAddress, "latest"),

        console.log("Signing transaction...");
        const signedTx = await account.signTransaction(transaction);

        console.log("Transaction signed. Sending...");
        const receipt = await web3.eth.sendSignedTransaction(

          `Transaction successful with hash: ${receipt.transactionHash}`
          `Find the transaction in the explorer:${receipt.transactionHash}`
      } else {
          "Not enough balance to cover the transaction cost. Transaction aborted."
    } catch (error) {
      console.error(`Failed to send transaction: ${error.message}`);

      if (retries < MAX_RETRIES) {
        console.log(`Retrying... (${retries}/${MAX_RETRIES})`);
        await new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, COOLDOWN)); // Wait for 5 seconds before retrying
        await sendTransaction(); // Retry the transaction
      } else {
        console.error("Maximum retries reached. Giving up.");

  await sendTransaction();

// Replace with your secret key, recipient address, and the amount to send
const secretKey = "0x_YOUR_PRIVATE_KEY";
const recipientAddress = "DESTINATION_ADDRESS";
const amountToSend = "1.0"; // Amount in Ether

sendAmount(secretKey, recipientAddress, amountToSend);
const ethers = require('ethers');
const provider = new ethers.JsonRpcProvider(NODE_URL);

async function sendEth(value) {

  // Define the sender and receiver addresses, and the private key
	const sender = '0x19e7e376e7c213b7e7e7e46cc70a5dd086daff2a';
  const receiver = '0xe9ba4b4d84d7a3c80245514213b88d50ed937114';
  const privateKey = '1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111';
  // Define the gas limit
  const gasLimit = await provider.estimateGas({
    from: sender,
    to: receiver,
    value: ethers.parseEther(value),

  // Get the transaction count for the sender address
  const nonce = await provider.getTransactionCount(sender);

  // Define the transaction object
  const transactionObject = {
    to: receiver,
    gasPrice: ethers.parseUnits('50', 'gwei'),
    gasLimit: gasLimit.toString(),
    nonce: nonce,
    value: ethers.parseEther(value),

  // Sign the transaction using the private key  
  const wallet = new ethers.Wallet(privateKey, provider);
  console.log(`Sending transaction...`)
  const transaction = await wallet.sendTransaction(transactionObject);
  console.log('Transaction hash:', transaction.hash);

from web3 import Web3  
web3 = Web3(Web3.HTTPProvider(node_url)) 

# Define the sender and receiver addresses, and the private key
sender = '0x19e7e376e7c213b7e7e7e46cc70a5dd086daff2a' 
receiver = '0xe9ba4b4d84d7a3c80245514213b88d50ed937114' 
private_key = '1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111'   

# Estimate gas limit
gas_limit = web3.eth.estimate_gas({
  'from': sender,
  'to': receiver

# Build the transaction object
transaction = {
  'nonce': web3.eth.get_transaction_count(sender),
  'to': receiver,
  'value': web3.to_wei(1, 'ether'), # value to send 
  'gas': gas_limit,
  'gasPrice': web3.eth.gas_price,
  'chainId': web3.eth.chain_id

# Sign the transaction
signed_tx = web3.eth.account.sign_transaction(transaction, private_key)
print(f'Signed transaction: {signed_tx}')

# Send the transaction
print('Sending transaction...')
tx_hash = web3.eth.send_raw_transaction(signed_tx.rawTransaction)
print(f'Transaction hash: {web3.toHex(tx_hash)}')


Note that you will need to edit the amountToSend, recipientAddress, and secretKey fields to be able to use this code.

Use case

One potential use case for eth_sendRawTransaction is to automatically swap ETH for a token when its price reaches a certain level. eth_sendRawTransaction will allow custom transaction parameters, such as gas price or gas limit, to be specified to optimize the speed and cost of the transaction.

For instance, you could build a program monitoring the price of a specific token and execute a swapExactETHForTokens transaction when the token reaches a certain price level, it could use eth_sendRawTransaction to submit a raw transaction with a custom gas price and limit optimized for the current network conditions.

Try the eth_sendRawTransaction RPC method yourself

Click Try It! to start a request and see the response here!